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В ходе методической практики на завершающем этапе нами был проведен урок в 11 классе с использованием технологии «Дебаты» по теме “Language Extinction”.

Фрагмент урока, проведенного по технологии «Дебаты» (Language Extinction)

1. Общая информация об уроке

Данный урок является систематизацией и промежуточным обобщением знаний по учебной теме “What’s in a language?” в 11 классе (учебник “New Millennium English”, автор О. Л. Гроза) и опирается на совершенствование навыков и умений, отработанных на предыдущих уроках.

2. Основные цели урока:

учебная:

− познакомить с особой формой дискуссии – дебатами;

−         расширить знания учащихся о языках и о проблеме исчезновения языков;

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−         привлечь внимание учащихся к ценности различных языков и своего родного языка;

развивающая:

−         развивать коммуникативные умения учащихся: умение слушать и слышать собеседника, способность работать в команде;

−         развивать ораторские способности: навыки публичного выступления, умения четко выражать свои мысли, уверенность в себе;

−         развивать исследовательские и организаторские навыки;

−         развивать логическое и критическое мышление.

воспитательная:

- воспитание терпимости к различным взглядам, чувства уважения к собеседнику;

3. Задачи урока:

−        создать коммуникативную среду для обучающихся;

−        разработать правила игры (дебатов) для использования их на уроке;

−        подобрать задания в группах, парах;

−        обеспечить урок материально-техническим оснащением;

−        обеспечить учащихся учебно-методической разработкой урока (раздаточным материалом);

−        создать устойчивую мотивацию к учению.

4. Тип урока:

Тип урока относится к нетрадиционным – дебаты или – ролевая игра.

5. Методы:

1) методы организации и самореализации:

−        перцептивный (наглядный, словесный, практический)

−        использование слайдов;

−        гностический (объяснительно-иллюстративный);

−        логический (обобщение);

−        управленческий (под руководством учителя. Самостоятельно);

−        были использованы разные формы работы;

2) метод стимулирования и мотивации учащихся: стимулирование интереса (создание новизны и успеха);

3) исследовательский.

6. Формы работы: фронтальная, групповая, парная, индивидуальная.

7. Оборудование:

доска, проектор, экран, магнитофон, подготовленная учителем и обучающейся 11 класса презентация по теме “Процесс исчезновения языков как глобальная проблема человечества”, раздаточный материал с клише по теме, с планом дебатов и таблицей аргументов для жюри.

8. Активная лексика:

Community, diversity, minority, reduce/reduction, survival, language extinction, cultural assimilation, genocide

Ход урока

В начале урока были поставлены цели и задачи. Для раскрытия темы использовались современные технологии, методы и формы обучения, базирующиеся на коммуникативной основе:

Debate Procedure.

Time-Keeper (Teacher): Dear Ladies and Gentlemen,

It’s a very real pleasure that I welcome you here this morning. I feel sure we are going to have the most interesting and pleasant meeting today.

Look at the blackboard and interpret the quotations. What do you think of them?

1. “И если завтра мой язык исчезнет, то я готов сегодня умереть”. (Rassool Gamzatov, a poet from Dagestan)

2. “The world’s languages are disappearing: in a hundred years’ time, an estimated 3,000 will be extinct. But does it matter as long as people can communicate?” (The Guardian)

T. What do you think the author of the first quotation wants to say?

Speaker1- S1. The author of the first quotation wants to say that the death of a language is such a terrible disaster that he even thinks it is impossible to live if his native language dies out.

S2. The beginning of the second quotation shows how quickly languages die. The question at the end has two functions: first, it appeals to the reader; second, it shows that the author doesn’t think languages’ dying is a disaster.

T. We’d like to introduce the project “Language Extinction as a Global Problem”.

В ходе работы была использована презентация, составленная учениками при помощи учителя  по теме “Language Extinction as a Global Problem”.

 T. So let me open the debate. The motion is “Language Extinction”. It is proposed by the first team. So, the floor is given to P1. Time: 4 minutes.

1. Proposer 1: Good afternoon, Honorable Jury, Time-Keeper. Good morning, dear colleagues.

Let me introduce myself and my team. I am P1, the first speaker. The second speaker in our team is P2. And the third speaker is P3.

The problem of language extinction is really serious nowadays and 75% of the teachers and pupils questioned stated that they share our opinion. This shows that more and more people understand the importance of the problem. Our team presents the points for the motion of the debate.

Our fist point is that the extinction of languages is a process that takes place nearly everywhere in the world. The rich variety of languages that must have existed in the past is diminishing and the number of languages is being reduced rapidly.

Our second argument in favour of the motion is that the death of a language is a disaster because language is part of people’s culture. Language death reduces the diversity of our planet, which is the key to our survival.

Our third argument for the motion is that larger cultures should have respect for minority languages. It is necessary to note that the problem of extinction of minority languages and their replacement by state or just prevailing ones is the universal problem of the mankind.

Time-Keeper: Your time is over. Thank you. Now the floor is given to the second team. Would you like to take time-out to discuss questions to the speaker?

Opposer 3: Yes, I’d like to take time-out for 2 minutes.

Time-Keeper: Time is over. I welcome O3. Your question, please. Time: 1,5 min.

2. Opposer 3: The speaker stated in his speech that the death of a language is a disaster. But would the speaker answer the question? Is the death of a language such a disaster?

Proposer 1: Thank you for your question. Surely, you might say, it is simply a symptom of more people willing to improve their lives by joining the modern world. So long as a few hundred or even a couple of thousand languages survive, that is enough. No, it is not. We should care about dying languages for the same reason that we care when the species of animals or plant dies. Languages are like people, in one way, but in another way they are not like people at all. When people die, they leave signs of their presence in the world, their archaeology. But spoken languages leave no archaeology. For, when a language dies, which has never been written down, it is as if it has never been.

Time-Keeper: Time is over. Thank you. The motion is opposed by the second team. The floor is given to O1. Time: 4 minutes.

3. Opposer 1: Good morning, Honourable Jury, Time-Keeper and dear colleagues!

I’d like to introduce myself and our team. I’m O1, the first speaker. This is O2, the second speaker and O3 is our third speaker.

We agree on the definitions given by the speaker P1and we’ll try to follow them in general. But we can’t agree on the motion of the debate.

Firstly, as my honourable friend P1 has said “the number of languages is being reduced rapidly”. But does it matter? Yes, as estimated by various linguists, many of the 6000 languages which are at present spoken in the world will not survive the next fifty years and will become extinct. At the moment, children no longer use twenty to fifty per cent of these languages, which makes the languages’ survival very uncertain.

The second argument doesn’t seem to be convincing either. The speaker has said that “the death of a language is a disaster”. I don’t think so. People would understand each other better if there were fewer languages.

The third argument is not true. As my dear friend P1 has said, “larger cultures should have respect for minority languages”. They should, but they don’t want to. These dying languages may be useful for communicating with older generations. However, they generally lack the widespread usage needed to justify the effort to learn them. Children are efficient language learners, but they also learn quickly which language tools get them ahead and which do not. They will not learn a language simply because their parents or grandparents wish them to; they learn a language to use it.

Time-Keeper: Time is over. Thank you. The floor is given to the proposers. Would you like to take time out? If yes, you can use 2 minutes to consult each other.

Your time out is over. Welcome with questions, please. Time: 1,5 minute.

4. Proposer 3: The speaker tried to change our minds saying that the death of a language is likely to be felt most acutely by the people for whom the language is ancestral, but the loss has profound implications for the larger world as well. For an indigenous people, the death of a native tongue can be experienced as a crushing loss of cultural identity, because language is one of the most obvious means of expressing one's association with the group. In addition, oral histories passed on in a certain language provide the foundation for the unique worldview of a people, and losing the language usually means losing the worldview as well. Entire histories may be lost when oral traditions die. The sounds, rhythms, and poetry that made the language unique may be gone forever.

But I’d like to hear the answers to the following questions. Do you know why languages are disappearing? Does language extinction only matter as long as people communicate?

Opposer 1: The most fundamental reason is increased contact among formerly isolated human societies. Languages need isolation to develop and to maintain their distinctive characteristics. When isolation ends, local languages tend to disappear along with traditional ways of life. And generally I think that language extinction only matters as long as people communicate.

5. Proposer 2: Many indigenous peoples and linguists are working to halt this trend, which threatens to diminish the world's cultural and linguistic heritage. Much of a society's history and culture is contained in its language. To lose an ancestral language is to weaken the links to the ancestors themselves. As languages disappear, a wealth of culture, art, and knowledge disappears with them. The world's many languages also offer anthropologists a unique resource for studying how humans spread across the Earth. Much of what is known about the historical movement of human beings comes from the study of languages that were spoken by ancient peoples of the Earth.

6. Opposer 1: The speaker gave convincing examples to support the points for the motion. But these are not the only justifications to be considered, however. From a larger perspective, the loss of a language is incremental, much as with the disappearance of an animal species. But won’t humanity be able to carry on with one language fewer?

Proposer 2: Surely so, but the world's cultural diversity will be diminished and made less rich. If languages are windows to the mind, then there is one less pane to look through.

Important clues to human history are buried in languages. The origin and dispersal of modern humans is a hotly debated topic among anthropologists. Some of the most interesting data in this debate come from reconstructing the family tree of languages scattered across the world.

7. Opposer 2: To return to this point, I dare to say that as for me one language is enough to communicate. The relationships among languages are still poorly understood, but they have yielded key insights into language evolution and early human migration. For example, they suggest that human language began about 100,000 years ago with a single language.

Далее дебаты продолжались в соответствии с форматом. Нужно отметить, что обучающиеся хорошо знают правила, роли и умеют выдерживать заданный регламент. Дебатам предшествовала большая самостоятельная работа учащихся по сбору, обработке и анализу информации, полученной из Интернета, журнала Speak Out, газеты English и других источников. Учащиеся делали выписки, продумывали возможные линии столкновения.

Классу (обучающимся, выступавшим в роли судьей) было предложено следующее задание:

−        составить свое собственное мнение по теме дебатов. Подтвердить его самым сильным, на ваш взгляд, аргументом, прозвучавшим в речи спикера;

−        выбрать лучшего спикера, выступление которого показалось вам наиболее убедительным, доказательным и ярким.

Для того, чтобы судьям было легче анализировать речи спикеров, по ходу их выступлений они заполняли таблицу аргументов, предложенную в (Приложении Е).

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