Процедура  исследования - Дискуссия как средство формирования коммуникативной компетенции на уроке английского языка в старших классах

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Для подтверждения поставленной гипотезы, было проведено экспериментальное исследование с целью подтверждения эффективности использования дискуссии при обучении английскому языку.

Исследование проводилось в муниципальном бюджетном общеобразовательном учреждении в 2014 г. Исследование проходило среди учащихся 10 класса до и после введения метода дискуссии на уроках английского языка. Мы провели входное и выходное тестирование и разработали примерный план урока обучения дискуссии.

При входном тестировании ученикам были представлены следующие задания:

I.a)  Make comparisons, using as ... as, so ... as,  than or the Superlative Degree

1. Our house is not ... big ... yours.

2. What is the name of the (big) port in the United States?

3. The new cinema in our district is much bigger ... the old one.

4. Moscow is the (large) city in Russia.

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5. We are ... proud of our district ... you are of yours.

6. St. Petersburg is one of the (beautiful) cities in the world.

7. The house I live in is ... old ... the one my sister lives in.

8. Exercise No.2 is easier ... Exercise No.3.

9. Nevsky Prospect is more beautiful ... our street.

10. My composition is not ... long ... yours.

b) Compare two plays (films, TV shows).

interesting, serious, amusing, cheerful, gloomy, funny, good (well), popular, bad (badly)

c) Compare two actors (actresses).

talented, popular, famous, skilled, (to do) well, powerful (about a voice), natural, nice (nicely), expressive, (to impress) very much.

 II.Make up dialogues of your own, using the words and word combinations given below.

1. Intending to Go to the Theatre

to read a poster, to be on, to be worth, to praise, in my opinion, an excellent idea, to look up the time of, to see an announcement, to be in great demand, to choose, to prefer, to look forward to ...

2. Booking a Ticket for the Theatre

a row, the stalls (the gallery, the pit, the balcony, a box), as a matter of fact, to prefer, these seats will do

3. Going to the theatre

to wear, to look nice, to keep somebody waiting, hurry up, I'd rather..., to take a taxi, to be held up, nearly, needn't

4. Impressions of a Film (Play)

to be worth, expressive, cast, excellent, opinion, to look upon ... as ..., to do well, to be impressed, to find interesting; as a matter of fact, a plot, to be familiar, to look forward to...

 

III Give a 1.5–2 minute talk about the place where you live.
Remember to say:
- what kind of a place it is (a city/town/village) and what it looks like
- what it is famous for
- what you would show your guests in your city (town/village), and why
You have to talk for 1.5–2 minutes. The teacher will listen until you have
finished. Then s/he will ask you some questions.

IV Task 2 (2–3 min)
You are staying at a hotel with your relative. The relative has a cold and needs
to see a doctor. Talk to the hotel receptionist and find out where you can find a
doctor and make an appointment if possible.
Ask the receptionist about
- if there’s a doctor close to the hotel
- the doctor’s working hours
- how much you should pay for the visit
You start the conversation. The teacher will play the part of the hotel
receptionist.
Remember to:
- be active and polite
- ask the questions and find out all the information you need
- decide when you and your relative are going to visit a doctor.

Приведем примеры разговорных фраз, необходимых учащимся для ведения обсуждения:

вы выражаете мнение -  I think (that)…; I guess (that)…; I suppose (that)…; I feel (that)…; As I see it…; My view is that…; My opinion is that…; If you ask me…; I’d say that…; In my view…; In my opinion…; I’d rather not say anything about it, I reckon…; From my point of view …; Apparently… ; So to speak…; More or less …; Sort of / kind of …. ; The way I see it …; Well…;  Really / actually … ; That is to say ….; At least …; I am afraid …; I mean и др.

 вы согласны :Just so; I quite agree here; Certainly; Sure; Exactly; I should think so; That’s just what I was thinking .; Sure/ exactly/ right/ absolutely, That’s  it, That’s for sure, That’s just what i think too, I think so too, I think like you, That’s exactly how I feel, I feel exactly the way you do, That’s a good point, Yes, you’re quite/ absolutely right, Yes, I quite/ absolutely agree with you, I can’t but agree with you, I couldn’t agree with you more, I fully agree with you, That’s a great idea, That’s a very good idea, What a good idea, That sounds like a good idea to me, I’m of the same opinion, I’m with you 100 percent on that,

No doubt about that, It’s ok with me, I was just going to say that, Well, perhaps, Well, i suppose you may/could be right, You may be right, but I’m not sure about  that, Perhaps you’re right, I  agree with you up to a point but, That’s quite true but,  I agree with you in principle, but.

вы не уверены – Yes, but…; On the other hand…; I’m afraid I don’t agree; I don’t think you are right; I can’t agree with you here; I’m not so sure и др.;

вы не согласны – On the contrary! Certainly not; Don’t be so silly! Just the other way round ,Do you really think so?, I don’t really agree., Are you sure that’s right?, Are you sure about that?, I’m not sure you’re right about that., I’m not sure that’s true, I agree up to the point, but, I see your point, but, That’s not quite how i see it., Yes, but don’t forget, I see what you mean, but don’t you think, I don’t think I’d go along with that. , I don’t think it’s a very good idea, why don’t we,

Yes, but isn’t it also true that, It doesn’t sound like a very good idea to me, That’s not always the case, That seems obvious, but.

Ниже представлен план урока, проведённый в группе учащихся:

План урока.

Тема урока: “Global ecological problems”

Цель урока: развитие иноязычной коммуникативной компетенции; формирование  гражданской компетенции; введение новой лексики по теме и тренировка учащихся в её употреблении; повышение уровня знаний учащихся, общего уровня образования; улучшение диалогического высказывания  учащихся; определение отношения к реальным и виртуальным проблемам, касающихся поколения молодежи в современном мире; развитие критического мышления и чувства гражданской ответственности; организация обсуждения проблемы в многочисленной группе; выяснение и обсуждение мнений в группе относительно высказанных преподавателем или кем-то из обучающихся тезисов и суждений.

Задачи:

1.    Обучающие:

1)             развивать умение диалогической и монологической речи с использованием актуального лексического и грамматического материала;

2)             совершенствовать фонетические навыки;

3)             совершенствовать умения аудирования (понять указанную информацию);

4)             тренировать в употреблении фраз для выражения согласия/несогласия;

5)             совершенствовать орфографические и произносительные навыки;

2.    Развивающие:

1)             развивать языковую догадку в процессе аудирования и чтения, память, мышление, умение вступать в диалог;

2)             развивать способность к логическому изложению содержания высказывания, формулированию выводов из прочитанного и услышанного;

3)             развивать способности выражать отношение к окружающей среде и экологии, развивать познавательную активность;

3.    Познавательные:

1)             вовлечь обучаемых в активный творческий поиск существующих экологических проблем в мире, своей стране и пути их устранения;

4.    Воспитательные:

1)             воспитать гражданскую ответственность за загрязнение окружающей среды;

2)             сформировать активную позицию патриота по отношению к защите окружающей среды через просмотр видеосюжетов на английском языке;

3)             воспитать бережное отношение к природным ресурсам, животным, растениям нашей планеты и родного края;

4)             привить экологическую грамотность и заботу об окружающей среде;

5)             воспитать чувство персональной ответственности за будущее своего края, планеты;

6)             научить детей работать сообща, развить взаимопомощь и чувство взаимной ответственности за успех каждого члена группы и всей команды в целом;

7)             привить навыки работы в группе, совершенствовать культуру общения: внимательно слушать друг друга, быть вежливыми.

       Тип урока: комбинированный урок-дискуссия.

      Методические цели: организация самостоятельной работы по использованию ИКТ, организация дискуссии на английском языке.

      Методы обучения:

1. Словесный: беседа, рассказ о проблемах экологии в мире и в регионе, декламирование стихов “Oh, Russia, I’m in love with you!” by L.A. Khusainova, “Hug the Earth” by Lorraine Bayes.

2. Наглядный: презентация о проблемах охраны окружающей среды, видеофильм  ”Save the Earth”, видеоклип Michael Jackson “The Earth Song”.

3. Реквизит: УМК Афанасьевой О.В., ноутбук, интерактивная доска, постеры Think globally, act locally, First Earth, Nature Is the source of people’s life, The protection of nature means the protection of our Motherland, диктант по теме “How green you are?”, раздаточный материал, презентации обучаемых по темам: ”Air Pollution”, “Water Pollution”, “Land Pollution”.

       Планируемый результат:

1) Понимать на слух речь учителя, одноклассников, носителя языка, исполнителя песни, вербально и невербально реагировать на это.

2) Читать тексты с пониманием основного содержания, пользоваться языковой догадкой.

3) Уметь использовать основную информацию из прочитанного текста для построения монологического или диалогического высказывания.

4) Применять знания, полученные при изучении других предметов, для участия в дискуссии.

5) Повысить экологическую грамотность.

6) Самостоятельно осуществлять коррекцию, контроль своей деятельности, рефлексию.

    Формируемые УУД:

1. Личностные: стимулирование устойчивой учебно-познавательной мотивации и интереса к учению; формирование компетентности в реализации основ гражданской идентичности в поступках и деятельности; жизненное, личностное, профессиональное самоопределение.

2. Познавательные: самостоятельно выделять и формулировать познавательные цели, искать и находить нужную информацию, методы и пути решения коммуникативных задач; развивать умение осознанно и произвольно строить речевое высказывание в устной и письменной форме, делать пометки в процессе аудирования.

3. Регулятивные: уметь планировать, прогнозировать, проводить необходимую коррекцию и контроль за своей деятельностью, а также сверстников; проявлять познавательную инициативу в учебном сотрудничестве.

4. Коммуникативные: уметь строить продуктивное взаимодействие с педагогом и сверстниками; адекватно использовать языковые средства для эффективного решения коммуникативных задач, отображая в своих высказываниях свои чувства, мысли, побуждения и иные составляющие внутреннего мира; проявлять готовность к диалогу, принимать активное участие в обсуждениях, умения работать в группе, использование слов-аргументов.

                                               Ход урока

I Введение в тему/Знакомство с темой нового цикла уроков.

Действия учителя

Действия обучаемых

 

Good morning, students!

Glad to see you!

How are you?                                 

Fine,thanks.

Today we are going to discuss different problems.

Look at this motto “Think globaly, act locally”, at our wall papers posters and slogans. We’ll start with a famous song by Michael Jackson. It is called the Earth Song (a fragment)

Let’s listen to it and while listening think  and makes notes about the most important problems mentioned in his song

Видеофрагмент(прослушивание и просмотр песни)

Good morning!

Glad to see you too!

Fine, thanks and how are you?             

 

 

1) What  is this song about

P1. It is about air, water and land pollution.

 

 

P2. It is about cutting down forests, animal killing, wars.

 

 

P3. Disappearing Animals and Plants.

 

2) What is the main idea of this song?

P4. Our Earth is in danger.

 

 

P5. We must be kind to nature

 

 

P6. Littering, war conflicts

 

3) Can you state the theme of the lesson

P1. Ecology and environment

 

 

P2. Be kind to nature

 

 

P3. How do you treat the Earth?

 

4) The theme of the lesson is “Global ecological problems”.

P4. Pollution. Ecological problems.

 

 

 

 

 

Look at the Screen. “Brain storm”

 

Can you name ecological problems? Pronounce them correctly, please.

1) pollution of air / air pollution

2) pollution of water / water pollution

3) littering, landfills

4) cutting down of forests / deforestation

5) erosion

6) drought

7) overpopulation

8) extinction

9) global warming

10) war conflicts

Find antonyms. Match two parts

Negative meaning

Positive meaning

   

When we speak about ecology, we may also use proverbs, which make our speech more lively. Look at these proverbs. Can you match their parts?

Match

Actions speak louder…

a) by its fruit.

A drop…

b) pain.

A tree is known…

c) and you'll get to the sea.

As you sow…

d) than words.

Every dark cloud…

e) what you can do (can be done) today.

Follow the river…

f) handsome does.

It never rains…

g) in the ocean.

Nature abhors (syn. can’t stand, hates)…

h) with nature

Never put off till tomorrow…

i) a vacuum.

Live in harmony ...

j) has a silver lining.

Release peace...

k) so shall you reap.

No gain without...

l) but it pours.

Handsome is that...

m)and increase.

Let’s remember the main terms on subject “Ecology”. What do these words mean? Read and translate them.

 

1. Ecology is a science that studies how plants, animals and other living things live together.

2. Environment is the place we live in.

3. Nature is the world with all living things, the land and the seas.

4. Pollution –making air, water and soil dirty and dangerous for people.

5. Ecologist is a scientist who studies our environment.

6. Waste is useless materials.

7. Dump is a place where people collect waste.

8. People can’t live without clean water, air and food.

9. It is dangerous to dump domestic and industrial waste.

10. We pollute the Environment when we use cars, burn leaves, pour toxic waste into rivers, seas, oceans.

11. There are a lot of things we can take from nature: gas, oil, wood, water, sand.

12. Let’s make our planet safe to live on, clean, beautiful…

Now I’m sure you’ll remember all these words and proverbs and try to use them in your speech. So it’s time to present you our ecological video. Let’s continue talking about our main ecological problems.

(Просмотр видео Mercy, Mercy)

 

What are the main ecological  problems? Let’s speak about them. Let’s make up short dialogues.

 

Dialogue 1

- What can you personally do to help the environment?

- Do you buy early flowers?

- How do you treat homeless animals?

- What would you do for animals when you grow up?

- What about litter?

- Do you drop litter?

- I always walk or go by bike. People can do something about pollution of cars.

- I never buy early spring flowers. Most of them are endanged. And I think it is very bad to make money by destroying them.

- I make a shelter for homeless animals.

- I would like to organize vet clinics for wild animals, when I grow up.

- I think it is very important to sort litter.

- I avoid dropping litter in the country.

Dialogue 2

- How do you treat the Earth?

- I plant trees, water flowers and collect papers.

- And what about you? Do you help nature?

- Yes, I do. I don’t cut trees, and disturb animals. I feed birds and animals in winter.

- Do you drop litter at school, or at home?

- No, I don’t I use bins. I have a good behaviour.

- What environmental rules do you know to be a friend of the Earth?

- To keep the country tidy; to throw litter away; never cut baby trees; don’t throw garbage in water; don’t hurt animals.

Dialogue 3

Make up a dialogue “Water pollution”. Match two parts

1. The water in the oceans, seas and rivers has become polluted. What do you think of it?

a) I agree. It is very dangerous to eat such fish. Fish become toxic, water birds leave places with toxic water. A lot of trees on the coast die too.

2. Why do people use oceans, seas and rivers as big dumps

b) I will make clean water laws I have to think about water pollution if I want to survive.

3. Fish become toxic, I think.

c) Our rivers, lakes and seas should be clean, not dangerous to bath in and safe to drink.

4. What’s your attitude to the environment?

d) To my mind people don’t care of nature, don’t think about our future. People destroy our environment carelessly.

5. What will you do to protect water?

e) I think that the pollution of water is very dangerous for people’s health. If people drink polluted water they can get ill or die.

Dialogue 4

How green are you?

- How green are you?

- I take care of nature. But people get used to polluting the planet.

- What are the most serious problems of our day?

- First, I think pollution, lack of recycling. Second, dangerous technologies, dangerous diseases. Third, new local wars.

- What’s wrong with us?

- For a long time people didn’t think of the future of our Earth. We should be moral, love our country, nature, pay attention to the environment, “be a citizen of our country”.

- What does the phrase “to be a citizen of our country” mean?

- It means 1)to plant more trees to make our country green, 2) use fewer cars, 3) Reuse, Recycle, Reduce, 4) help animals to survive, 5) love nature and live in harmony with it, 6) keep yourself pure.

Dialogue 5

1

- How often do you go shopping to buy food with your family?

 

- Do you buy food in plastic containers?

2

- Sometimes. Why?

 

- That’s right!

 

- Yes, I’ve read in the text that even making plastic causes pollution. And it makes the town and the countryside look horrible. Besides it can be dangerous for animals.

 

- Yes, quite often. I like to taste different salads.

 

- What do you do with plastics afterwards?

 

- So people must think what they do and care about the environment.

 

- Throw it away. Yes, I know what you are going to say. It’s very bad and harmful for our nature.

Key

- How often do you go shopping to buy food with your family?

- Sometimes. Why?

- Do you buy food in plastic containers?

- Yes, quite often. I like to taste different salads.

- What do you do with plastics afterwards?

- Throw it away. Yes, I know what you are going to say. It’s very bad and harmful for our nature.

- Yes, I’ve read in the text that even making plastic causes pollution. And it makes the town and the countryside look horrible. Besides it can be dangerous for animals.

- So people must think what they do and care about the environment.

- That’s right!

T. Now I offer you to watch a video, called “Save our world”, and you’ll compare your ideas with the recommendations in it. While watching complete the table (карточки) with the facts from the video. Write only key words.

Environmental problems are similar (the same) everywhere – in Europe, in Great Britain and Russia, of course.

How can we stop all this? What can we do? While watching and listening, fill in the table with the information from the video.

Main problem of the future

Types of renewable energy

Reduce what?

Recycle what and how?

Reuse what?

Things to do around your home

How to save the Earth

1.

1.

2.

3.

1.

1.

2.

1. jars

2.

3.

4.

5.

6. electrical kits

7.

1.

2.

3.

 

Save not only the environment, but also…

           

Use the words:

climate change; solar panels, wind farms, underwater turbines; the amount of waste you produce; many items in your home, use a recycle bin; bottles, bags, cans, paper, food; plant a tree in your garden, make compost with your left-over food, hang your clothes out to dry in good weather; family money, to plant a gardern, to be kind to nature, to protect nature, use three R’s.

T.: It’s time to present you our ecological project “Global ecological problems”.

What should you do to save our planet?

Why shouldn’t you do?

 После просмотра презентации

What do you think about ecological problems?

What’s you opinion?

What does the phrase “To be the citizen of you country mean”?

P1.: The environment is all the things we need to live: water to drink and to wash with, air to breath and health food to eat. We can’t live without plants and animals. The help to make the soil, they clean the water and air, and they give us all our food. The world is our home and we want to see it clean and beautiful. At the same time we take from the nature as much as we can. We cut down forests and build farms, houses, roads and factories on the land. While doing it we pollute the environment. We make a lot of waste some of which is toxic. We damp domestic and industrial waste in the country and pour toxic waste into our rivers, seas and oceans.

        Cars and factories, plants and power stations pollute the air and make it dangerous to breath.

People have to think about all these ecological problems if they want to survive.

I think they should use three  golden rules R’s (reuse, reduce, recycle). To my mind they should:

- plant more trees to make our country green,

- help animals to survive,

- clean rivers and lakes,

- feed animals in  cold  weather,

- be careful with farm waste,

- make laws to controle pollution.

To sum up I would use some proverbs: “Actions speak louder than words”, “Handsome is that handsome does”.

P2.:   People have to think about all these ecological problems if they want to survive, save our Earth.

Firstly, they should live in harmony with nature,

-they shouldn’t built factories on river banks,

-people shouldn’t turn rivers into dumps,

- they shouldn’t use rivers for washing cars.

Secondly, people shouldn’t  burn toxic waste,

        - cut down trees, which make air clean,

        - shouldn’t dump old cars in forests,

        - shouldn’t destroy animals’ habitat.

Thirdly, they shouldn’t waste water, gas, energy,

        - shouldn’t pollut our environment,

To sum up I’d like to use proverbs: “As you sow so you shall reap”, “Nature can’t stand vacuum”, “No gain without pain”.

P3.:   We must think and care about the nature globally and locally. We must become environment friendly, be kind to nature be a friend of the planet. Our government must create recycling factories in our city and everywhere in Russia. People should be creative with their wastes. We must reuse our packages. We must think that we are personally responsible for our future, and our planet.

To sum up I’d like to use proverbs: “Think globally act locally”, “A tree is known by its fruit”, “If you don’t think about the future, you will not have it”.

T.: Students, open your diaries and write down your home task.

a) Write a letter to your pen-friend and tell him about ecological problems in our city Samara.

b) Do ecological projects “Feed birds in winter”, “Be kind to nature”, “Ecology and Environment”

T.: Students, now you know how dangerous the ecological situation on our Earth is. You are future engineers, scientists, workers, teachers, ecologists. You will continue addressing the ecological environmental problems which concern everyone. The positive results depend on serious attention of the people of the whole world to this problem. You will work out new projects, new slogans. You will be active members of the movement for protecting the environment from further pollution. Be kind to nature. Don’t pollute the air, the water, the Land. Take care of our city and our country.

Now we’ll listen to a poem “Oh, Russia, I’m in love with you!”

The lesson is over, good bye!

При выходном тестировании группе были представлены следующие задания:

Тask 1

Give a talk about foreign languages.

Remember to say:

   why it is useful to study foreign languages at school;

   how many languages you would like to speak; what they would be;

   what you do to improve your English.

You have to talk for 1.5–2 minutes. The teacher will listen until you have

finished. Then s/he will ask you some questions.

Task 2 (2–3 minutes)

You play the part of a student in an international language school. The course is about to be finished and you want to make a PowerPoint presentation about your group.

You need to take some photos in class but you don’t have a camera. On campus you see your classmate Barbara/Bob who has a very good camera.

   Ask your classmate to lend you her/his camera.

   Answer your classmate’s questions about your school day in Russia.

   Answer the questions about how young people in your city/town keep fit.

   Reject the invitation to go to the cafeteria. Give an excuse.

You begin the conversation. The teacher or a classmate will play the part of Barbara/Bob

Remember to

   mention all four aspects of the task

   take an active part in the conversation and be polite

Тask 3

Give a talk about books.

Remember to say:

- why people continue reading books nowadays;

- what kinds of books are popular with Russian teenagers;

- what book you would take with you to a desert island and why.

You have to talk for 1.5–2 minutes. The teacher will listen until you have finished. Then s/he will ask you some questions. 

Task 4

Give a talk about holidays.

Remember to say:

- what holidays are the most popular in your country;

- what your favourite holiday is and why you like it;

- how you usually celebrate this holiday.

You have to talk for 1.5–2 minutes. The teacher will listen until you have finished. Then s/he will ask you some questions.

 

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